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Metro Manila (Filipino: Kalakhang Maynila) is the National Capital Region and the prime tourist destination in the Philippines. The metropolis is the Philippines’ center of commerce, education, and entertainment. It is located on the island of Luzon, bordered by the province of Bulacan on the north, Rizal on the east, Laguna on the south, Cavite on the southwest, and Manila Bay on the west. Though it is the smallest region in the country, Metro Manila is the most populous of the twelve defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the 11th most populous in the world.
1st District (Manila)- The 1st district is exclusive for the Philippines’ bustling, crowded and noisy city of Manila where the historic walled city of Intramuros stands. This is also where Chinatown and Little India are located.
3rd District (Navotas, Malabon, Caloocan, Valenzuela, North Caloocan) – The 3rd district consists of the flood prone city of Malabon, Valenzuela, Navotas, Caloocan and North Caloocan all of which are on the outskirts of the Metro.
4th District (Makati, Pasay, Taguig, Pateros, Muntinlupa, Parañaque, Las Piñas)- The heart of the 4th district is formed by the financial and commercial districts of Makati, Pasay and Taguig. Las Piñas is where the famous bamboo organ is found. Pasay is where Newport city (an entertainment complex which include Resorts World and the Marriot, among others) is located, right across NAIA Terminal 3. The city of Muntinlupa is one of the places in which the countries most affluent live. The town of Pateros which is mostly known for its Balut.
Manila — The capital of the Philippines, one of the most densely populated cities in the world.
Quezon City — also has its share of large shopping malls, and electronic and automotive parts discount centers. The Ortigas Center at the confluence of Quezon City, Mandaluyong and San Juan is also a shopper’s paradise.
Caloocan — the main hub of people from the Northern Philippines. Known to be one of the 4 original cities of Metro Manila, along side Manila, Quezon City, and Pasay City.
Pasay — Home to cultural centers and establishments as well as the Philippines’ largest mall; The Mall of Asia as well as the one of the country’s popular attraction; the Coconut Palace.
Pasig — A city named after the river next to it, the Pasig River. It is an industrial town with a booming business district in the uptown Ortigas Center. Downtown Pasig is home to more rustic churches, American period houses, and excellent cuisine.
Makati — Metro Manila’s business district with tall buildings, luxurious hotels, vast shopping malls, lively entertainment spots, and numerous restaurants.
Mandaluyong — Nicknamed as Shopping capital of the Philippines for its collection of numerous shopping centers.
Marikina — Shoe capital of the Philippines, it was the former capital of the province of Manila during the declaration of Philippine Independence.
Taguig — First a thriving fishing community it slowly developed into an urbanized city.
Plazas, Parks and Nature Reserves
Plaza de Roma
When it comes to parks, Luneta park and Intramuros are the most popular destinations. Luneta Park (also called as Rizal Park and Rizal Monument) is home to the Rizal monument; a statue of the Philippines’ national hero, Jose Rizal. It is one of the most significant and most important places in Philippine history from the Spanish colonial era to the EDSA revolution. The walled former city of Intramuros served as a settlement for the Indianized-Malay-Muslims, then it was taken over by the Spanish and fell into ruins during the World War II, it is one of the most popular icons of the Philippines. See Plaza de Roma in Intramuros where a statue of King Carlos IV of Spain stands, Plaza de Goiti or now known as Plaza Lacson is where a statue of Arsenio Lacson; said to be one of Manila’s greatest mayor stands, next to it is Roman Santos building which would again make you think you’re somewhere in Rome, Italy because of it Greco-Roman architecture. Plaza Miranda stands infront of Quiapo Church in the Filipino-Muslim district of Quiapo, an unfortunate event occurred here on 1971; the Plaza Miranda bombings. Manila Zoological and Botanical Gardens is one of the oldest zoos in Asia unfortunately it is criticized for its inadequate care towards animals as well as its dirty surroundings and animal rights activists are demanding to free the animals due to this while Ninoy Aquino Parks and Wildlife Center have rare animals such as water monitors and the Philippine deer, it also treats injured animals even if it isn’t part of their zoo. La Mesa Dam EcoPark is the haven for most Filipinos after a tiring week of work and a getaway from the noisy and polluted metro, not only is it an ecopark but is also a dam which provides water to Metro Manila and nearby provinces. Manila Ocean Park is larger than Singapore’s Sentosa Underwater World, construction is incomplete however it had already opened to the public, tickets cost 350 for a child, 400 for adults. Quezon Memorial Circle is a shrine and a national park, it is where the remains of late President Manuel Quezon and his wife are rested. While Greenbelt Park is located in Makati and is worth seeing.
Places of worship
Religion is one of the major aspects of life of a Filipino, the diverse population of the Philippines follows the world’s major religions; Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and some following the Jewish faith and part of the Church of the Latter Day Saints, some forms of paganism, animism or any other kind may somehow exist. Manila’s population follows almost all of those religions.
See Basilica Minore de la Immaculada Concepcion or Manila Cathedral in simple words in Intramuros, it is a historic church which served 2 funerals for 2 Filipino presidents as well as bishops’ funerals. Basilica Minore de San Lorenzo Ruiz or Binondo Church in Chinatown caters to Chinese Filipinos, seen here is the synchronization of Western architecture, Catholic faith and Chinese influences. Our Lady of China chapel is located in this Church. See the miraculous Black Nazerene or Itim na Nazareno in Basilica Minore de Jesus Nazareno or Quiapo church which is believed to give miracles and blessings, during January it is crowded as well as the streets of Metro Manila too, as a procession is held, during Fridays the church is filled with devotees.
Epifanio de los Santos Shrine
Churches and sanctuaries
San Agustín Church. edit
Redemptorist Church (Baclaran Church).
Remedios Church (Malate Church).
Santuario de San Antonio
The Golden Mosque is located in the Quiapo district which is somehow the Filipino-Muslim district of Manila, its dome is made of gold and is built in order of the Marcoses.
The National Museum of the Filipino People
Filipinas Heritage Library
Ateneo Art Gallery
University of Santo Tomas Museum of Arts and Sciences
The Museum at De La Salle University-Manila
Museum of Contemporary Art and Design at De La Salle-College of Saint Benilde
Bahay Tsinoy (Filipino-Chinese Museum)
Monumento de la Revolucion
People Power Monument
Manila City 1,780,148
Mandaluyong City 386,276
Marikina City 450,741
Pasig City 755,300
Quezon City 2,936,116
San Juan City 122,180
Caloocan City 1,583,978
Malabon City 365,525
Navotas City 249,463
Valenzuela City 620,422
Las Piñas City 588,894
Makati City 582,602
Muntinlupa City 504,509
Parañaque City 665,822
Pasay City 416,522
Pateros Municipality 63,840
Taguig City 804,915
Metro Manila 12,877,253
Cavite Province lies along the southern shore of Manila Bay. It is bounded on the north by Manila Bay and Metro Manila, on the east by Laguna, on the west by the South China Sea, and on the south by Batangas.
Capital: Trece Martires City
Land Area: 1,427.06 km²
Population: 3,090,691 (2010)
Cities: Cavite City, Bacoor, Imus, Dasmariñas, Tagaytay and Trece Martires
The land- The portion of the province bordering Manila bay consist of lowlands or flat lying areas. The central portions is characterized by rolling and undulating lands. The rest are upland or hilly and mountainous areas.
Tagaytay Ridge has the highest elevation at 640 meters above the sea level.
The province is cut by five major rivers: Maragondon, Labac, Cañas, Ilang-Ilang and Imus, emptying into Manila Bay.
In General, Cavite has two pronounced seasons: relatively dry from November to April and wet from May to October.
A Brief History
The province´s name is derived from the Tagalog word kawit, meaning “hook”, which refers to the shape of the peninsula. This place was a port of Spanish vessels, including the galleons from Mexico.
In 1614, Cavite was created as a politico-military province.
In 1872, a mutiny at the Cavite arsenal implicated three Filipino priests: Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora, who were subsequently executed by the garrote.
Cavite was a center of military operations during the Philippine Revolution of 1896. The Spaniards executed 13 Filipino revolutionaries in Cavite City that year: the provincial capital is now named after them “Trece Martires City”.
On June 12, 1898, General Emilio Aguinaldo proclaimed Philippine independence from his residence in Kawit. Bacoor became the capital until the seat of government was transferred to Malolos, Bulacan.
A civil government was established by the Americans in Cavite in 1901, with Cavite City as provincial capital.
Trece Martires City became the capital upon its creation in 1954.
The inhabitants are mostly Tagalogs. Chavacano, a kind of pidgin Spanish, is spoken in few areas. Caviteño and Ternateño are local Tagalog dialects that are Hispanicized.
Commerce and Industry
Cavite is predominantly an agriculture province. Its major crops include rice, corn, vegetables, fruits, root crops, coffee, coconut and sugarcane. The province is endowed with rich offshore and coastal fishing grounds. Fishing is a major source of livelihood in the coastal towns. Many industrial establishments are now operating in Cavite, and more industrial estates have been or are being developed in various parts of the province.
Cavite City was best known in the past as the main base of the Philippine Navy, but has now become a satellite city of Manila, with a massive influx of new residents and rapid industrial development. The main attractions in the area are the Island Cove, Caylabne Bay Resort (Ternate), and Leisure Park and several first class resorts.
Cavite Province can justifiably claim to be the birthplace of the nation, as Imus was the site of the first successful revolution. The Imus Historical Marker commemorates this event. The province is the birthplace of Philippine heroes, among them General Emilio Aguinaldo.
The Aguinaldo Shrine and Museum in Kawit occupies the site where the proclamation of independence ws made and where the Philippine flag was first unfurled. The Andres Bonifacio House in General Trias is the former home of the country’s revolutionary leader, while the site of his court martial in Maragondon is also preserved. Other historical sites include the Battle of Alapan and Battle of Julian Bridge Markers, Fort San Felipe and the House of Tirona.
Corregidor gained international fame as the site of the valiant, last ditch stand of the Filipino-American forces against the Japanese invaders in 1942. The fortress island is now a major tourist attraction, as the buildings, tunnels, gun emplacements and other structures remain well-preserved.
The main churches of the province are the Imus Cathedral, Silang, General Trias and Maragondon Catholic Churches. The Shrines of Our Lady of La Salette, Silang, and St. Anne, Tagaytay, also attract pilgrims.
Natural attractions include Cabag Caves and Malibedibic and Balite Falls.
The present Cavite City was once a mooring place for Chinese junks trading that came to trade with the settlements around Manila Bay. The land was formerly known as “Tangway”. Archeological evidence in coastal areas show prehistorical settlements. According to local folklore, the earliest settlers of Cavite came from Sulu or Borneo. The territory of what is Cavite used to be under the jurisdiction of the Indianized Empire of Majapahit which was superseded by the Kingdom of Tondo which had waged a successful war for independence, thereafter, invaded by the Sultanate of Brunei which established a vassal-state, the Rajahnate of Maynila.
Spanish colonial period
The Spanish colonizers who arrived in the late 16th century saw the unusual tongue of land jutting out on Manila Bay and saw its deep waters as the main staging ground where they could launch their bulky galleons. It would later become the most important port linking the colony to the outside world through the Manila-Acapulco Galleon trade. In 1571, Spanish colonizers established the port and City of Cavite and fortified the settlement as a first line of defense for the city of Manila. Galleons were built and fitted at the port and many Chinese merchants settled in the communities of Bacoor and Kawit, opposite the Spanish city to trade silks, porcelain and other oriental goods.
“A defensive curtained wall was constructed the length of Cavite’s western side,” beginning from the entrance, “La Estanzuela”, and continuing to the end of the peninsula, “Punta de Rivera”, with the eastern shore unprotected by a wall. Cavite contained government offices, churches, mission buildings, Spanish homes, Fort San Felipe and the Rivera de Cavite shipyard. Docks were in place to construct galleons and galleys, but without a dry dock, ships were repaired by careening along the beach.
Fort San Felipe, La Fuerza de San Felipe, was built between 1609 and 1616. This quadrilateral structure of curtained walls, with bastions at the corners, contained 20 cannons facing the seashore. Three infantry companies, 180 men each, plus 220 Pampangan infantry, garrisoned the fort.
The galleons Espiritu Santo and San Miguel, plus six galleys were constructed between 1606 and 1616. From 1729 to 1739, “the main purpose of the Cavite shipyard was the construction and outfitting of the galleons for the Manila to Acapulco trade run.”
The vibrant mix of traders, Spanish seamen from Spain and its Latin-American colonies, as well as local residents, gave rise to the use of pidgin Spanish called Chabacano.
In 1614, the politico-military jurisdiction of Cavite was established. As with many other provinces organized during the Spanish colonial era, Cavite City, the name of the capital, was applied to the whole province, Cavite. The province covered all the present territory except for the town of Maragondon, which used to belong to the Corregimiento of Mariveles. Maragondon was ceded to Cavite in 1754 when Bataan province was created from Pampanga province.Within Maragondon is a settlement established in 1660 by Christian Papuan exiles brought in by the Jesuits from Ternate in the Maluku Islands, and named this land Ternate after their former homeland.
Owing to its military importance, Cavite had been attacked by foreigners in their quest to conquer Manila and the Philippines. The Dutch made a surprise attack on the city in 1647, pounding the port incessantly, but were repulsed. In 1672, the British occupied the port during their two-year control in the Philippines.
In the 17th century, encomiendas (Spanish Royal land grants) were given in Cavite and Maragondon to Spanish conquistadores and their families. The religious orders began acquiring these lands, with some donated, enlarging vast haciendas (estates) in Cavite during the 18th and 19th century, enriching themselves. These haciendas became the source of bitter conflicts between the friar orders and Filipino farmers and pushed a number of Caviteños to live as outlaws. This opposition to the friar orders was an important factor that drove many Cavite residents to support reform, and later, independence.
In 1872, Filipinos launched their revolt against Spain. Three Filipino priests—Jose Burgos, Mariano Gomez and Jacinto Zamora—were implicated in the Cavite mutiny when 200 Filipinos staged a rebellion within Spanish garrisons. On August 28, 1896, when the revolution against Spain broke out, Cavite became a bloody theater of war. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo, Caviteños made lightning raids on Spanish headquarters, and soon liberated the entire province through the Battle of Alapan. Aguinaldo commanded the Revolution to its successful end – the proclamation of the First Republic of the Philippines on June 12, 1898 in Kawit.
A marker affixed to the Cavite cannon in Winnetka, IL that reads “This gun was mounted on the defences of Cavite arsenal which was surrendered to Commodore George Dewey”
During the Spanish–American War, American forces attacked the Spanish squadron in Cavite. The Spanish defeat marked the end of Spanish rule in the country.bA captured Spanish cannon from the Cavite arsenal now sits in Village Green Park in Winnetka, Illinois, USA.
World War II Japanese occupation and liberation
In May 1942, after the fall of Bataan and Corregidor Island, the Japanese Imperial forces occupied Cavite and made garrisons in each town of the province. After surviving in the Bataan Death March and released from Capas, Tarlac concentration camp USAFFE Col. Mariano N. Castaneda, a future governor of the province, returned to Cavite and secretly organized the resistance movement in the province.
The Japanese authorities pressured him to accept the position as Provincial Governor of Cavite, he refused many times over until his excuses did not work, much against his will he was forced to accept the position by the Japanese, and by thinking that it would be beneficial to further organize the resistance movement as Governor by day and a guerilla by night. Eventually, the Japanese discovered his guerrilla connection and raided his house in the attempt to capture him, but he escaped along with Col. Javalera by swimming the Imus river up to Salinas, Bacoor and finally joined his comrades in the field in Neneng, in the then town of Dasmarinas.
At this time due to his organizational skills the Fil American Cavite Guerilla Forces (FACGF) raised a regiment in each of the administrative units and also created attached special battalions Overall, 3 special battalions, 1 medical battalion, 1 signal company, 1 hospital unit, Division GHQ and Staff were raised to provide administrative and combat support. Later on, the FACGF, with a peak of 14,371 Enlisted Men and 1,245 officers, grew into a formidable force to take on the omnipresent rule of the Japanese in the province. At its peak the force contained 14 infantry regiments:
1st Infantry Regiment, Imus (Col. Lorenzo Saulog)
2nd Infantry Regiment, Bacoor (Col. Francisco Guererro)
3rd Infantry Regiment, Silang (Col. Dominador Kiamson)
4th Infantry Regiment, Dasmarinas (Col. Estanislao Mangubat Carungcong)
5th Infantry Regiment, Barangay Anabu, Imus (Col. Raymundo Paredes)
6th Infantry Regiment, Cavite City (Col. Amado Soriano)
7th Infantry Regiment, Alfonso (Col. Angeles Hernais)
8th Infantry Regiment, Naic (Col. Emilio Arenas)
9th Infantry Regiment, Mendez (Col. Maximo Rodrigo)
10th Infantry Regiment Kawit (Col. Hugo Vidal)
11th Infantry Regiment Imus (Col. Maximo Reyes)
12th Infantry Regiment, Amadeo (Col. Daniel Mediran)
13th Infantry Regiment, Rosario (Col. Ambrosio Salud)
14th Infantry Regiment, Brgy. Paliparan, Dasmarinas (Col. Emiliano De La Cruz)
On January 31, 1945, the liberation of the province of Cavite started with the combined forces of the American 11th Airborne Division under General Swing and Col. Hildebrand and the valliant Caviteño guerrilleros of the Fil-American Cavite Guerilla Forces, which liberated the province of Cavite from the Japanese occupiers, and protected at all costs the National Highway 17 from Tagaytay to Las Pinas that serve as the vital supply route of the 11th Airborne Division, paving the way towards the road to the bitter but victorious Battle of Manila.
The economic growth of the country began to creep its way to the province following the end of the Second World War and the restoration of independence. Given its distance from Manila, the province soon began to feel a transformation into an economic provider of food and industrial goods not just for Metro Manila but for the whole of the country. In 1954, Trece Martires City was created out as a planned capital city from portions of Tanza, Indang, Naic and General Trias. Despite the transfer of capital status to Imus City in 1979, it retains many offices of the provincial government, acting thus as the de facto capital of the province. Also, Tagaytay’s high location and cool temperatures would enable it to become a secondary summer capital and a vacation spot especially during the Christmas season, given its distance to the Manila area.
Plan CALABARZON of 1972, in the midst of martial law and the communist and anti-government aggression that occurred in the rural areas and the western highlands, set the roadmap for the arrival of industrial estates to the province, beginning an era of economic progress. Carmona was the first town to have industrial estates, through the rising number of residents from the capital region enabled the creation of a new town, General Mariano Alvarez, in 1981, from parts of the town’s north and west. In addition, Bacoor, given its distance from Metro Manila, saw the building of the first residential villages to accommodate the rising number of workers in the capital in the same period, and today, this city, alongside other towns and cities in the province’s north and central parts, have more residential subdivisions and townships, as well as a number of shopping malls and other private business establishments.
Laguna, officially the Province of Laguna (Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Laguna; Spanish: Provincia de Laguna), is a province in the Philippines, located in the Calabarzon region in Luzon. Its capital is Santa Cruz and the province is situated southeast of Metro Manila, south of the province of Rizal, west of Quezon, north of Batangas and east of Cavite. Laguna hugs the southern shores of Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the country. As of the 2015 census, the province’s total population is 3,035,081. It is also currently the seventh richest province in the country.
Laguna is notable as the birthplace of Jose Rizal, the country’s national hero. It is also famous for attractions like Pagsanjan Falls, the University of the Philippines Los Baños and the University of the Philippines Open University in Los Baños , the hot spring resorts of Calamba on the slopes of Mount Makiling, Pila historic town plaza, Taytay Falls in Majayjay, the wood carvings and papier-mâché created by the people of Paeté, the annual Sampaguita Festival in San Pedro, the turumba of Pakil, the tsinelas footwears from Liliw, the Pandan Festival of Luisiana, the Seven Lakes of San Pablo, and the Nagcarlan Underground Cemetery in Nagcarlan.
Regions of Laguna
Eastern Laguna (Cavinti, Famy, Kalayaan, Luisiana, Lumban, Mabitac, Magdalena, Majayjay, Paete, Pagsanjan, Pakil, Pangil, Santa Cruz, Santa Maria, Siniloan)
Rainy region at the western side of Sierra Madre; major tourist draws are the Pagsanjan Falls, Lake Caliraya, and the wood sculptures of Paete.
Northwest Laguna (Bay, Biñan, Cabuyao, Calamba, Los Baños San Pedro)
Urban sprawl with a mix of modern communities and crowded communities; major draws are the hot springs and the Rizal mansion, Enchanted Kingdom in Santa Rosa, and lovely downtowns with Spanish-era churches.
Southern Laguna (Alaminos, Calauan, Liliw, Nagcarlan, Rizal, San Pablo, Victoria)
Forested and mountainous area, with scattered towns and the hub city of San Pablo. Attractions in this area are the Seven Lakes of San Pablo, the Underground Cemetery of Nagcarlan, and the wooden slippers (bakya) of Liliw.
Biñan – residential and industrial city
Calamba – Home of Jose Rizal and hot springs
San Pablo – A city home to seven lakes, which are its major tourist attractions.
Santa Rosa – A growing residential suburb, with a booming economy driven by industry, retail, and real estate development, and a gateway to Tagaytay.
San Pedro – A growing residential and industrial suburb not far from Metro Manila. Home of the Sampaguita Festival and the Shrine of the Holy Sepulchre.
Alaminos, Bay, Calauan, Cavinti – resort town, home to the Caliraya Lake, Famy, Kalayaan, Liliw – A small municipality overlooking Mount Banahaw. Known for its slippers. Los Baños – Suburb of Calamba. Home of hot springs, Mount Makiling, University of the Philippines Los Baños and the International Rice Research Institute. Luisiana, Lumban, Mabitac, Magdalena, Majayjay, Nagcarlan, Paete, Pagsanjan – Home to Pagsanjan Falls, Pakil, Pangil, Pila, Rizal, Santa Cruz – Provincial capital. Santa Maria, Siniloan, Victoria
HISTORY OF LAGUNA
Laguna is a province of the Philippines located in the CALABARZON region in Luzon. Its capital is Santa Cruz and it is found south-east of Metro Manila, southern province of Rizal, west of Quezon, north of Batangas and east of Cavite. Laguna de bay, which is the largest lake in the Philippines, is almost surrounded by the whole province of Laguna. The province got its name from the Spanish word “lago”, which means lake. Laguna is known as the birthplace of Jose Rizal, the national hero of the Philippines. Also known to tourists are the Pagsanjan Falls, Park Town of Pila, Laguna, The Woodcarvings of men in Paete and Pakil, The Hot Springs of Los Baños on the slopes of Mt. Makiling and the Hidden Valley Springs in Calauan.
History The Province of Laguna was named after Laguna de Bay, the body of water that forms its northern boundary. Laguna de Bay, in turn, was named after the town of Bay (Laguna de Bay is Spanish which means “Lake of Bay”), the first provincial capital. Captain Juan de Salcedo with a band of one hundred Spanish-Mexican soldiers and many Bisayan allies conquered the province and its surrounding regions for Spain in 1571. Seven years later, two Franciscan friars started the work of Christianization.
In 1577, the Franciscan missionaries arrived in Manila, and in 1578 they started evangelizing Laguna, Morong (now Rizal), Tayabas (now Quezon) and the Bicol Peninsula. Fathers Juan de Placencia and Diego de Orepesa were the earliest Franciscans sent to these places. From 1580, the towns of Bay, Caliraya, Majayjay, Nagcarlan, Liliw, Pila, Santa Cruz, Lumban, Pangil and Siniloan were founded. In 1678, Fray Hernando Cabrera founded San Pablo de los Montes (now San Pablo City) and built a wooden church and convent considered as the best and finest in the province.
In 1670, delimitation of borders were made between Lucban, Majayjay and Cavite. The populous town at that time was Bay, the capital of the province until 1688, when the seat of the provincial government was moved to Pagsanjan, and later, in 1858, to Santa Cruz. In 1754, the Province of Laguna and Tayabas were divided, with the Malinao River separating the towns of Majayjay and Lucban.
The province became a bloody battle ground for the Chinese during the two instances that they rose in revolt against Spain. In 1603’s, the Chinese made their last stand in the mountains of San Pablo, and in 1639, they fortified themselves in the highlands of Cavinti and Lumban, surrendering in Pagsanjan a year later.
The loyalty of the people of Laguna to the crown was tested during the British invasion (1762-1764) when thousands of Filipinos rallied to its defense. When a detachment of British troops under Captain Thomas Backhouse entered the province in search of the silver cargo of the galleon Filipino, Francisco de San Juan of Pagsanjan led a band of volunteers that fought them in several engagements in and around the town which was then the provincial capital (1688-1858). Captain Backhouse plundered the town and burned its newly reconstructed church but San Juan succeeded in escaping with the precious hoard to Pampanga where the treasure greatly bolstered the defense effort of Simon Anda. For his heroism, San Juan was made a brigade commander and alcalde mayor of Tayabas (now Quezon) province.
The people’s loyalty gradually degenerated into bitter hostility. Grave abuses by the colonizers, including that of the clergy, caused the resentment of the natives to be fanned into a rising flood of insurrection. In 1840 for instance, religious intolerance led the people of Majayjay, Nagcarlan, Bay, and Biñan to join the revolt of Hermano Pule (Apolinario de la Cruz) of Lucban, Tayabas.
Laguna was also exposed to the aspirations of its most famous son, Dr. Jose Rizal, who was born in Calamba. The persecution of Dr. Jose Rizal and his parents toward the end of the century further aggravated the situation, so that by 1896, thousands of patriotic inhabitants, especially of Bay, Los Baños, Nagcarlan, Magdalena, Santa Cruz, and Pagsanjan had joined the revolutionary Katipunan.
Laguna was one of the eight provinces to rise in revolt against the Spanish misrule led by Generals Paciano Rizal of Calamba, Severino Taino of Pagsanjan, Agueda Kahabagan (woman general) of Calauan, and Miguel Malvar of Batangas. The ill-equipped Filipino forces fought the well-armed enemy until on August 31, 1898, when the last Spanish garrison surrendered to the victorious patriots in Santa Cruz. The province was cleared of Spaniards. There had been only one respite, the Pact of Biac-na-Bato on December 14 to 15, 1897.
Laguna actively supported the first Philippine Republic proclaimed at Malolos on January 23, 1899. Her two delegates to the Malolos Congress, Don Higino Benitez and Don Graciano Cordero, were natives of Pagsanjan.
Upon the outbreak of the Filipino-American War (1899-1901), General Juan Cailles and General Paciano Rizal led the defense of Laguna until June 30, 1901, when surrender became inevitable. Cailles became the first Filipino Governor of Laguna under the American flag.
The Province of Laguna progressed rapidly in peace. Roads were built, schools were established, and in 1917, the Manila Railroad Company extended its line to Laguna as far as Pagsanjan.
During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines (1942-1945), Laguna was a center of Filipino resistance despite the presence of Makapili collaborators. Beginning in 1945, attacks by the Filipino soldiers and Filipino guerillas against Japanese forces in Laguna increased in anticipation of the Liberation of the Philippines by the Filipino & American forces.
Present-day Laguna shows a thriving economy. Peopled by 1,734,618 (1997 estimated population) industrious citizens and possessing a total area of 1760 km² of land, Laguna produces millions of pesos worth of coconuts, rice, sugar, citrus fruits, lanzones and other products. Tourists flock to its beauty spots, especially Pagsanjan Falls, Los Baños Hot Springs, Makiling National Park, Caliraya Lake and many others. Levels of development vary. The towns near Metro Manila have become industrialized whereas the inner towns continue to engage in agricultural production or pursue agri-based industries and cottage and small-scale industries.
Laguna was one of the first sites of the Philippine Revolution. Calamba City is the birthplace of José Rizal, the country’s national hero.
Batangas is located Southwest of Luzon. It is flanked on the north by Cavite, on the south by the Verde Island Passage wihich separated the province from the northern tip of the island of Mindoro.
Capital: Batangas City
Land Area: 3,165.81 km²
Population: 2,377,395 (2010)
Cities: Batangas, Lipa, Tanuan
Districts: 1st to 4th districts of Batangas
Languages: Batangas Tagalog, Spanish, English
About half of the province’s terrain is generally rolling, while the rest is mountainous and hilly.
Mt. Makulot rises 1145 meters in the central part.
The world-famous Taal Lake and Taal Volcano is in Batangas. The province is said to be the base of a huge volcano and Taal Lake its crater before it erupted.
The present volcano, the smallest active one in the world, is sometimes referred to as “a volcano within a volcano”.
The irregular coastline is dotted with coves, peninsulas and bays.The Maricaban and Verde Islands in the Verde Island Passage are still part of the province.
Batangas has two distinct seasons: dry from November to April and wet the rest of the year.
A Brief History
Batangas was made into a province by the Spaniards in 1581. It was composed of what is now Batangas, the islands of Mindoro and Marinduque, and the southeastern portion of Laguna. It was then called Bombon and later renamed to Balayan. By the beginning of the 17th century, Mindoro and Marinduque were made into a separate province.
In 1732, the capital was transferred to Taal and the province was named after it. In 1754, the capital was moved to Batangas and the province assumed its present name.
The province is known as the home of heroes and patriots. Apolinario Mabini, the “Sublime Paralvtic” and “Brains of the Revolution”, was from Tanauan. Marcela Agoncillo, who sewd the Filipino flag hoisted during the proclamation of Philippine independence in Kawit, Cavite, on June 12, 1898, was from Taal. Miguel Malvar, the last Filipino General to surrender to the Americans, was born in Santo Tomas. Jose P. Laurel, the president of the Japanese-backed Philippine Republic during World War II, was from Tanauan too.
Batangas is one of the principal seats of Tagalog culture. The people speak the language with a distinct accent.
Batangueños are known for their industriousness as traders. Many commercial center in the country often have establishments owned bypeople of Batangas descent.
Commerce and Industry
Agriculture is the main economic activity in Batangas. The major crops produced by the province are palay, sugarcane, coconut, and coffee.
The province is a major supplier of cattle to Metro Manila.
Taal Lake and the nearby coast are the main sources of fish for the province.
Taal Church, also known as the Basilica of St. Martin de Tours, is the biggest church in the Philippines.
The General Malvar Museum in Lipa displays historic relics and antique furniture.
The Msgr. Clemente Yatco Museum in Batangas City houses a collection of religious paraphernalia.
Resorts can be found throughout the province. Plaza del Sol in San Nicolas and Volcano Lake View in Agoncillo offer views from the base of Taal Volcano. Sea Breeze in Taal, Gerthel Beach in Lobo, and the Lobo Submarine Garden are among the province’s aquatic attractions.
Scuba diving and sailing resorts can be found in Mabini town.
“Parada ng mga Lechon” in Balayan, is a parade wherein roasted pigs are carried through the streets before being eaten by guests. This parade coincides with the feast of St. John the Baptist.
Prehistory- Long before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines, large centers of population already thrived in Batangas. Native settlements lined the Pansipit River, a major waterway. The province had been trading with the Chinese since Yuan Dynasty until first phase of Ming Dynasty in the 13th and 15th century. Inhabitants of the province were also trading with Japan and India.
Archeological findings, show that even before the settlement of the Spaniards in the country, the Tagalogs, especially the Batangueños, had a very high level of civilization. This was shown by some jewelry, made from a chambered nautilus’ shell, where some tiny holes were drilled by some tube. The way it was drilled shows that early Batangueños had an idea of what is beautiful.
Later, the pre-historic Batangueños was influenced by India as shown in some ancient potteries. In fact, a Buddhist image was reproduced in mould on a clay medallion in bas-relief from the Municipality of Calatagan. According to experts, the image in the pot strongly resembles the iconographic portrayal of Buddha in Siam, India and Nepal. The pot shows Buddha Amithaba in the tribhanga pose inside an oval nimbus. Scholars also noted that there is a strong Mahayanic orientation in the image, since the Boddhisattva Avalokitesvara was also depicted.
One of the major archeological finds was in January 1941, where 2 crude stone figures were found in Palapat in the Municipality of Calatagan. They were later donated to the National Museum. Unfortunately, one of them was destroyed during World War II.
Eighteen years later, a grave was excavated in the nearby Punta Buaya. Once again, it showed that early Batangueños have an appreciation of art, since pieces of brain coral were carved behind the heads of the 12 remains that were found. The site was named ‘Likha’ (meaning ‘Create’). The remains were accompanied by furniture that could be traced as early as the 14th century. Potteries, as well as bracelets, stoneware and metal objects were also found in the area, suggesting that the people who lived there had an extensive contact with people from as far as China.
The presence of believed also suggested that prehistoric Batangaueños believed in the idea of life-after-death, since someone might need a plate where he would eat or chalices where he could drink. This also related the Batangueños to its neighbors in Asia, where it was a custom to bury some furniture with the dead.
Like the nearby tribes, the Batangan or the early Batanueños were non-aggressive people. Partly because most of the tribes in the immediate environs are related to them by blood. However, when there is no choice but to defend your life, Batangans would use the bakyang (bows and arrows), the bangkaw (spears) and the suwan (bolo).
Another proof of civilization from the Batangans was the presence of religion. Though it was highly superstitious, such as the use of amulet (talisman), it showed that these people believed in the presence of higher beings and other things unseen. Thus, there is a strong connection between the Batangans and nature.
Although it is widely accepted that the term Tagalog came from the word ‘Taga-Ilog’ o river Dwellers, (referring to the Pasig River), Wang The-Ming pointed out in his writings that Batangas was the real centre of the Tagalog Tribe, which he then identified as Ma-yi. According to this Chinese Annals, Ma-yi had its centre in the Province and extends to as far as Cavite, Laguna, Rizal, Quezon, Bataan, Bulacan, Mindoro, Marinduque, Nueva Ecija, Some parts of Zambales and Tarlac. However, many historians interchangeably use the term Tagalog and Batangueño.
Henry Otley Beyer, an American archaeologist, also showed in his studies that the early Batangueños have a special affinity with the precious stone known as the jade. In fact, the named the Late Paleolithic Period of the Philippines as the Batangas Period in recognition of the multitude of jade found in the excavated caves in the province. Beyer identified that the jade-cult reached the Province as early as 800 BC and lasted until 200 BC.
Spanish colonization – In 1570, Spanish generals Martin de Goiti and Juan de Salcedo explored the coast of Batangas on their way to Manila and came upon a Malay settlement at the mouth of Pansipit River. In 1572, the town of Taal was founded and its convent and stone church were constructed later.
Officially, the Province of Bonbon was founded by Spain in 1578, through Fr. Estaban Ortiz and Fr. Juan de Porras. It was so named after the name that was given to it by the Muslim natives who inhabited the area.
In 1581, the Spanish government abolished the Bonbon Province and created a new province which came to be known as Balayan Province. The new province was composed of the present provinces of Batangas, Mindoro, Marinduque, southeast Laguna and Camarines. After the devastating eruption of Taal Volcano in 1754, the old town of Taal, present day San Nicolas, was buried. The capital was eventually transferred to Batangas (now a city) in fear of further eruptions where it has remained to date.
The history of Batangas as a province can never be separated from the history of the Christianization of the Islands. In the same years that de Goiti and Salcedo visited the province, the Franciscan missionaries came to Taal. The place later became the first settlement of the Spaniards in Batangas and one of the earliest in the Philippines. In 1572 the Augustinians founded Taal in the place of Wawa, now San Nicolas, and from there began preaching in Balayan and in all the big settlements around the lake of Bombon (Taal). Indeed, the Augustinians did a very good job. Not only did they make Batangas the second most important religious centre of the Archipelago, they did it in a mere 10-year period. In fact, up to now, Batangas remains to be one of the most ‘Christianised’ and even the most ‘Catholic’ Province in the Philippines.
The first missionaries in the diocese were the Augustinians, and they remained until the revolution against Spain. Among the first missionaries were eminent men like Alfonso de Albuquerque, Diego Espinas, Juan de Montojo and others.
The first centers of faith were established in Taal, then in Balayan, Bauan, Lipa, Sala, Tanauan, all around the lake of Bombon (Taal).
The first missionaries were the Augustinians. And during the first ten years, the whole region around the lake of Bombon was completely Christianized. It was done through the preaching of men who had learned the first rudiments of the language of the people. At the same time they started writing manuals of devotion in Tagalog,such as novenas. What is more, they wrote the first Tagalog grammar that served other missionaries who came.
The year of foundation of important parishes follows: 1572 the Taal parish was founded by the Augustinians; 1581 the Batangas parish under Fray Diego Mexica; 1596 Bauan parish administered by the Augustinian missionaries; 1605 Lipa parish under the Augustinian administration;1774 Balayan parish was founded; 1852 Nasugbu parish; and 1868 Lemery Parish.
Nasugbu became a very important centre of trade during the Spanish occupation of the country. So important was this town that the first recorded battle between two European Forces in Asia was in Fortune Island, Nasugbu, Batangas. In the late part of the 20th Century, the inhabitants of Fortune Island discovered a sunken galleon that contained materials sold in the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade. Today, the Galleon stands majestically in the islands as a reminder of the grandeur of Batangan Past.
Batangas was also among the first of the eight Philippine provinces to revolt against Spain and also one of the provinces placed under Martial Law by Spanish Governor General Ramon Blanco on August 30, 1896. This event was given distinction when Marcela Agoncillo, also a native of the province, made the Philippine Flag. Indeed, the official Philippine flag has a sun with eight rays to represent these eight provinces.
Another notable hero from this era is Apolinario Mabini, also known as the sublime paralytic and “Brains of the Revolution”.
American period – The struggles of the Batangueños did not end when the Spaniards left the Philippines. Batangas was also in the watch-list of the Americans when they occupied the Islands.
When the Americans forbade the Philippine flag from being flown anywhere in the country, Batangas was one of the places where the revolutionaries chose to propagate their propaganda. Many, especially the revolutionary artists chose Batangas as the place to perform their plays. In an incident recorded by Amelia Bonifacio in her diary, the performance of Tanikalang Ginto in the province led not only to the arrest of the company but all of the audience. Later, the play was banned from being shown anywhere in the country.
General Miguel Malvar is recognized as the last Filipino general to surrender to the United States in the Philippine-American War.Raph
Japanese occupation – After the attack in Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, the Japanese switched their planes to attacking the Philippines, launching major air raids throughout the country. The bombings resulted into the destruction of the Batangas Airport located in Batangas City, of which nothing remains today. Batangas was also a scene of heavy fighting between the Philippine Army Air Corps and the Japanese A6M Zero Fighter Planes. The most notable air combat battle took place at height of 3,700 metres (12,000 ft) on December 12, 1941 when 6 Filipino fighters led by Capt. JesúsVillamor engaged the numerically superior enemy of 54 Japanese bombers and fighter escorts which raided the Batangas Airfield. Thus, Capt. JesúsVillamor won the battle, suffering only one casualty, Lt. César Basa whose plane was shot down by seven intercepting enemy fighters which eventually died when he was strafed by machine gun’s fire came from the A6M Zeroes.
When Gen. Douglas MacArthur ordered the overall retreat of the American-Filipino Forces to Bataan in 1942, the province was ultimately abandoned and later came under direct Japanese occupation. During this time, the Imperial Japanese Army committed many crimes against civilians including the massacre of 328 people in Bauan, 320 in Taal, 300 in Cuenca, 107 in San Jose and 39 in Lucero.
Liberation – As part of the Philippines Campaign (1944–45), the liberation begun on January 31, 1945 when elements of the 11th Airborne Division under the US Eighth Army went ashore of the beaches of Nasugbu, Batangas. However, Batangas was not yet the target of the invasion force but instead, most of its units switch north to capture Manila and by March 3, the capital was completely secured. XIV Corps of the US Sixth Army continued its drive south of Luzon and by March 4, the 11th Airborne Division together with 158th Regimental Combat Team (or 158th RCT) were passed under its command. 158th Regimental Combat Team stationed in Nasugbu would have to secure the shores and nearby towns of Balayan and Batangas Bays while the 11th Airborne Division from the Tagaytay Ridge would attack the Japanese defenses north of Taal Lake and by then reaching the Lipa Corridor. The same that day, 158th RCT had captured the town of Balayan and by March 11 had reached Batangas City. In order to secure the two bays, 158th RCT would have to capture the entire Calumpang Peninsula of the town of Mabini which was still held by some elements of the Japanese 2nd Surface Raiding Base Force. Fighting continued until March 16 when the whole peninsula was finally captured. After that, 158th RCT’s turn northward to meet the Japanese Fuji Force defenses at Mt. Maculot in Cuenca on March 19. Finally, 158th Regimental Combat Team capitulated on March 23 for Bicol Operations and 187th Infantry Task Force of the 11th Airborne Division was assigned to relieve their positions in the mountain. Another 11th Airborne Division task force, the 188th Infantry was ordered to dispatch their troops around Batangas City and its remaining frontiers. To the northern section, 11th Airborne Division’s 511 Parachute Infantry Regiment positions in Santo Tomas and Tanauan were all relieved by the 1st Cavalry Division. By now, 11th Airborne Division’s 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces holding the southern sector and the 1st Infantry Division to the northern sector were on their way to secure the Lipa Corridor, the last major part of the Province of Batangas to be taken.
The last major offensive for the capture of the Lipa Corridor begun when 188th Infantry Task Force from Batangas City left for Lipa on March 24. The same that day, 187th Infantry Task Force launched an attack against the remaining Japanese positions in Mt. Maculot. Although still heavy fighting continued until April 17, the bulk of its forces headed also for the invasion of the Lipa Corridor. The final capture of Mt. Maculot came by April 21.
188th Infantry Task Force on the other hand engaged a stiff resistance against Fuji Force’s 86th Airfield Battalion on March 26. Meanwhile to the north, 1st Cavalry Division attacked the remaining Japanese defenses in towns of Santo Tomas and Tanauan and by then meeting up with the advancing 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces from the south. Lipa was captured by the 1st Cavalry Division on March 29. Fuji Force’s 86th Airfield Battalion retreated and makes their last stand on Mt. Malepunyo where they were besieged by the 187th Infantry Task Force and 1st Cavalry Division from both north and south positions.
With the capture of Lipa, 1st Cavalry Division, 187th and 188th Infantry Task Forces continued their drive towards the Quezon Province. Only some elements of the 188th Infantry Task Force was left to clear the Batangas Mountains located southeast of province from the remaining Japanese defenses. Throughout the battle, recognized Filipino Guerrilla fighters played an important key role in the advancement of the combined American and Philippine Commonwealth troops, providing key roads and information for the Japanese location of defenses and movements. The 11th Airborne Division and attached Filipino Guerillas had 390 casualties in which 90 of it were figured dead. The Japanese however lost 1,490 men. Soon afterwards, by the end of April 1945, Batangas was liberated and fully secured for the Allied control, thus ending all the hostilities.
The establishment and founded of the military general headquarters and military camp bases of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was active and built on 1942 to 1946 and the Philippine Constabulary was active and built on 1944 to 1946 in the province of Batangas in Southern Luzon. During the engagements of the Anti-Japanese Imperial Military Operations in Manila, Southern Luzon, Mindoro and Palawan from 1942 to 1945 included the City of Manila and the Provinces of Rizal, Cavite, Laguna, Batangas, Mindoro and Palawan and aided the local soldiers of the Philippine Constabulary, local guerrilla resistance and U.S. liberation military forces against the Japanese Imperial armed forces.
Local Filipino soldiers of the 4th, 41st, 42nd, 43rd, 45th and 46th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 4th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was started the Battle for the Liberation of Batangas under the Southern Luzon Campaign from the Allied and Japanese forces in January to August 1945 and helping the local recognized guerrillas and American forces against the Japanese Imperial forces and ended in World War II.
Post-American period – After Douglas MacArthur made his famous landing in the Island of Leyte, he came next to the town of Nasugbu to mark the liberation of Luzon. This historic landing is remembered by the people of Batangas every last day of January, a holiday for the Nasugbugueños. And if Leyte is proud of the bronze statues of McArthur, Batangas can is also proud of their own version of that.
After the Philippines was freed from America, the Batangueños once again entered the picture. Statesmen from Batangas became famous in the government. These include the legislators Felipe Agoncillo, Galicano Apacible (who later became the Secretary of Agriculture), Ramon Diokno, Apolinario R. Apacible, Expedito Leviste, Gregorio Katigbak, Teodoro Kalaw, Claro M. Recto, and Jose Laurel.
Most of these legislators became well known not only in the country but also in the world as many of them held executive offices afterwards. some of them were even sent as Philippine Envoys to other countries.
It is also notable that when Quezon left the Philippines during the Japanese Occupation, the Japanese government in the Philippines chose the Batangueño Jose Laurel, Sr. to the de jure President of the Puppet Republic.
Rizal Province lies immediately east of Metro Manila. It is bounded on the north by Bulacan, on the east by Laguna de Bay. It has no existing provincial capital but the seat of its government is in Pasig, which currently forms part of Metro Manila.
Capital: Antipolo City
Land Area: 1,175.8 km²
Population: 2,484,840 (2010)
Cities: Antipolo City
Districts: 1st and 2nd districts of Rizal, 1st and 2nd districts of Antipolo
Languages: Tagalog, English
City or municipality – Angono , Antipolo, Baras, Binangonan, Cainta, Cardona, Jalajala, Morong, Pililla, Rodriguez, San Mateo, Tanay, Teresa
The land – The terrain is mostly low and flat on the western part, and rolling hills and rugged ridges on the eastern part. At the foot of these elevations are the Marikina Valley and Teresa Valley.
The Pasig and Marikina Rivers are the major rivers that can be found in the province.
Montalban Dam serves as the main source of water supply for a greater part of the Metro Manila area.
The mountainous portion of the province has evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year. The lakeshore area has two seasons: wet from June to October, and dry for the rest of the year.
A Brief History – After the fall of Manila in 1571, the Spaniards proceeded along the Pasig River and eventually overran Cainta and Taytay. They founded one town after another which eventually formed the military district of Morong. In 1898, Antipolo became the capital of Morong.
On June 11, 1901, the first Philippine Commission united parts of the old province of Manila and the district of Morong to form a new province named after Jose P. Rizal, the country´s national hero. Rizal Province originally consisted of 26 municipalities – 14 from Manila and 12 from Morong.
In 1975, 12 towns of Rizal, including Pasig, were incorporated into the newly-created Metro Manila.
The People – Majority of the inhabitants are Tagalogs.
Native people, called Dumagats and Igorots, live in the mountains.
Residents in the town of Cainta, called Sepoy, are descendants of Indian soldiers who mutinied after the brief British occupation in 1762-1764.
Commerce and Industry – Agriculture in Rizal is less intense compared to other provinces in the region and in the country. The major crops are rice and fruits, specifically mango, citrus, coffe, cacao and cashew. Production of garments is the top industry, followed by trading and service-oriented business.
Eight towns lie along the northern coast of Laguna de Bay and residents depend on the lake for their livelihood. Tilapia and duck-raising can be found in these towns.
Other Information – Antipolo is the largest town in Rizal. It also serves as a religious and tourism center. The patron saint of travelers, Our Lady of Peace and Good Voyage, is enshrined in the town’s church. Thousands of devotees go on pilgrimage to the shrine during the entire month of May.
Old churches can be found in the neighboring towns of Antipolo. Three of the more popular old churches are the St. Jerome Church in Morong, the Baras Church, and the Tanay Church.
The town of Binangonan is the hometown of national artist Vicente Manansala. His shrine preserves his orginal paintings and paraphernalia.
The San Clemente Festival is held on November in honor of the patron saint of fishermen. A fluvial procession is done in Laguna Lake, to highlight the event.
HISTORY OF RIZAL PROVINCE
The province of Rizal was originally composed of 26 towns. The territory began with the organization of the Tondo province and Laguna province during the Spanish administration. Some of the towns like Pasig, Parañaque, Taytay and Cainta were already thriving. Tagalog settlements arrived in Rizal who were originally were Chinese and later had interactions and admixtures with Arab traders long before the Spanish conquest.
From the reports of the Encomiendas in 1582-1583, the Encomiendas of Moron (Morong) was under the jurisdiction of La Laguna and, the Encomiendas of Passi (Pasig), Taitay (Taytay) and Tagui (Taguig) belonged to the Province of Tondo. It was recorded that in 1591, the Encomiendas of Moron and Taitay were under the jurisdiction of the Franciscan Order in the Province of La Laguna; and the Encomiendas of Nabotas (Navotas), Tambobo (Malabon), Tondo, Parañaque, Longalo (Dongalo), Tagui and Pasig were under the jurisdiction of the Augustinians in the Province of Tondo.
In 1853, a new political subdivision was formed. This consisted of the towns of Antipolo, Bosoboso, Cainta and Taytay from the Province of Tondo; and the towns of Morong, Baras, Tanay, Pililla, Angono, Binangonan and Jalajala from the Province of La Laguna, with the capital at Morong. This district was later changed to Distrito Politico-Militar de Morong after four years.
In 1860, by virtue of Circular No. 83, dated September 2, 1859, the Province of Tondo became the Province of Manila. All its towns were placed under the administration, fiscal supervision and control of the Governor of the new province.
The town of Marikina became the capital of the Province of Manila during the tenure of the revolutionary government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. The Province of Morong had for its capital the town of Antipolo for the period 1898-1899, and the town of Tanay for 1899-1900.
On February 6, 1901, the First Philippine Commission sought to establish civil government in the country through a provincial organization act after the Filipino-Spanish and Filipino-American conflicts.
Therefore, on June 5, 1901, a historic meeting was held at the Pasig Catholic Church for the organization of a civil government in the Provinces of Manila and Morong, with 221 delegates in attendance. The first Philippine Commission, headed by President William Howard Taft and composed of Commissioners Luke E. Wright, Henry C. Ide, Bernard Moses and Dean C. Worcester, discussed with the Assembly the issue of whether or not to write the Province of Manila with Morong Province, was not self-sufficient to operate as a separate province.
Although the delegates from Morong, Don Hilarion Raymundo and Don Jose Tupas, objected to the proposal, Delegate Don Juan Sumulong of Antipolo strongly advocated the move. After much acrimonious debate and upon the suggestion of Dr. Trinidad H. Pardo de Tavera the body agreed on the creation of a new province independent of the Province of Manila. The new province was aptly named after José Rizal, the country’s national hero.
On June 11, 1901, the province of Rizal was officially and legally created by virtue of an Act No. 137 by the First Philippine Commission which during the time was acting as the unicameral legislative body in the island of Luzon.
The new province was composed of 27 municipalities, 15 from the old province of Manila (Caloocan, Las Piñas, Malabon, Makati, Parañaque, Mandaluyong, San Juan, Navotas, Muntinlupa, Taguig, Pateros, Pasig, Marikina, San Mateo, and Montalban; and 12 from the Politico-Militar District of Morong, (Angono, Baras, Binangonan, Cainta, Antipolo, Cardona, Jalajala, Morong, Pilillia, Tanay, Taytay and Teresa). The seat of the provincial government is Pasig.
On November 7, 1975, by virtue of Presidential Decree No. 824, the 12 towns of Las Piñas, Parañaque, Muntinlupa, Taguig, Pateros, Makati, Mandaluyong, San Juan, Malabon, Navotas, Pasig and Marikina and the 3 cities of Caloocan, Pasay and Quezon City were incorporated into the newly formed Metro Manila Region thereby leaving the remaining 14 towns to the Province of Rizal.
Bulacan is a province in the Philippines, located in the Central Luzon Region (Region III) in the island of Luzon, 11 kilometres (6.8 mi) north of Manila (the nation’s capital), and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region. Bulacan was established on August 15, 1578.
It has 569 barangays from 21 municipalities and three-component cities (Malolos the provincial capital, Meycauayan, and San Jose del Monte). Bulacan is located immediately north of Metro Manila. Bordering Bulacan are the provinces of Pampanga to the west, Nueva Ecija to the north, Aurora and Quezon to the east, and Metro Manila and Rizal to the south. Bulacan also lies on the north-eastern shore of Manila Bay. Bulacan’s most populated city is San Jose del Monte, the most populated municipality is Santa Maria while the least populated is Doña Remedios Trinidad.
In 1899, the historic Barasoain Church in Malolos was the birthplace of the first constitutional democracy in Asia.Feel the heart and soul of the Philippines in Bulacan. Its history and tradition, its land, culture and its people. Truly a melting pot of the past and the present, the old and the new, the countryside and the urban. Bulacan is noted as the land of heroes, beautiful women, progressive cooperatives, and small and medium-scale industries. It is also known for excellent craftsmanship in making jewelry, leather craft, buntal hats, pyrotechnics, bone in-laid furniture and garments. Bulacan also has emerged into a reputable resort haven of Luzon. Just a few minutes north of Manila by car, Bulacan resorts provide an accessible and welcome respite from the pressures of city life.
Bulacan, officially called the Province of Bulacan or simply Bulacan Province, is a first class province of the Republic of the Philippines located in the Central Luzon Region (Region 3) in the island of Luzon, north of Manila (the nation’s capital), and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region. Bulacan was established in August 15, 1578. It has 569 barangays from 21 municipalities and 3 component cities (Malolos, the capital city; Meycauayan; and San Jose del Monte).
Bulacan prides itself on its rich history. The province figures prominently in Philippine History. Many national heroes and political figures were born in Bulacan. The province was also one of the first to revolt against Spain. The province is honored as one of the 8 rays of the sun in the national flag. It is the home of the “Three Republics.” These are the Republic of Real de Kakarong de Sili (1896) in Pandi, the Republic of Biak-na-Bato (1897) and the very first Philippine Republic in Malolos (1899–1901). In recognition thereof, these three republics established in Bulacan have been incorporated in the official seal of the province of Bulacan.
In 1899, the historic Barasoain Church in Malolos was the birthplace of the First Constitutional Democracy in Asia. It is also the cradle of the nation’s noble heroes, of great men and women; also home to many of the country’s greatest artists, with a good number elevated as National Artists.
Bulacan has fast become an ideal tourist destination and an essential player in the tourism of the Philippines, owing to its vital role in Philippine history, and its rich heritage in culture and the arts. The province is popularly known for its historical sites; nostalgic old houses and churches; idyllic ecological attractions; religious attractions; colorful and enchanting festivals; swimming and various themed attractions; and a wide selection of elegant native crafts and sumptuous delicacies. It is also home to numerous resorts, hotels, restaurants, and other recreational facilities.
The province’s name is derived from the Tagalog word ‘bulak’ meaning cotton, which was its former principal product. Bulacan started with small fishing settlements along the coast of Manila Bay and expanded into the interior with the coming of the Spaniards. These settlements formed the nucleus of towns that were founded from 1572 (Bulacan and Calumpit) to 1750 (San Rafael). In 1848, the town of San Miguel was annexed to Bulacan from Pampanga. Bulacan was one of the first eight provinces to rise against Spanish rule. The first phase of the Philippine Revolution ended with the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato in San Miguel in 1897 between the Filipinos and the Spaniards, after which Aguinaldo was exiled to Hong Kong. The second phase saw the drafting of the constitution of the first Philippine Republic by the Malolos Congress at Barasoain Church in 1898. The subsequently established republic had its capital at Malolos until President Emilio Aguinaldo transferred it to San Isidro, Nueva Ecija in 1899 when the Filipino-American War broke out. When the Americans established a civil government in the Philippines, they held the first election in the country in the town of Baliuag on May 6, 1899. Bulacan is the home province of heroes like Francisco Baltazar (Balagtas), “The Prince of Filipino Poets”, Marcelo H. Del Pilar, “The Great Propagandist,” and Gregorio del Pilar, “The Hero of Tirad Pass.”
Balagtas Monument (Balagtas, Bulacan)
Built in honor of Francisco “Balagtas” Baltazar, Father of Tagalog Poetry, whose masterpiece “Florante at Laura” is very popular.
Biak-na-Bato Cave (San Miguel, Bulacan)
Located in the suburbs of San Miguel de Mayumo on the northern tip of Bulacan, Biak-na-Bato became the refuge of the revolutionary army that fled Cavite and Batangas.
Today, hanging bridges and staircases connecting rivers and caves make for a pleasurable exploration.
Bulacan Old Train Station (Guiguinto, Bulacan)
Built in 1661, the Estacion de Guiguinto (Guiguinto Train Station) is the town’s most acclaimed historical landmark and heritage site. It was upon this site that the Katipuneros (Filipino guerillas during the Spanish Regime) ambushed a train from Dagupan, killing six friars, including the parish friar of Guiguinto, Fr. Leocadio Sanchez, and a Spanish doctor. The incident inspired Severino Reyes to author the novel “Opera Walang Sugat” which was later made into a movie entitled “Walang Sugat.”
Calumpit Bridge (Calumpit, Bulacan)
Site of the first battle between Filipino and American soldiers during the retreat of Aguinaldo to the Ilocos Region.
Casa Real Shrine (Malolos City, Bulacan)
The shrine was built in 1580 and served as the seat of the government of the town of Malolos during the Spanish and American occupation. It also served as the office of the National Museum and National Printing Press during the first Philippine Republic where the revolutionary organs La Independencia, El Heraldo de la Rovolucion, Kalayaan and Kaibigan ng Bayan were printed. At present, it is a museum and library under the administration of the National Historical Institute. It was restored in 1852.
De Leon Ancestral Home (San Miguel, Bulacan)
The De Leon House, built in 1914, was the home of LVN studio matriarch Dona Sisang de Leon. It still attracts people with its antique furnishings and Old-World feel. The airy two-storey mansion now holds a miraculous century-old statue, “San Miguel and the Devil,” which has weathered wars, storms, earthquakes and floods.
Enriquez Ancestral House (Bulacan, Bulacan)
Constructed during the 1850s, it is one of the ancestral houses found in San Jose, Bulacan, Bulacan. Some of the documents of Marcelo H. del Pilar were found in this house. It houses a museum of rare antiques and historical artifacts. It is presently owned by acclaimed Filipino food historian Milagros Enriquez.
Gat Marcelo H. Del Pilar Memorial (Bulacan, Bulacan)
Shrine and birthplace of the country’s great propagandist and hero. Also known by his pen name Plaridel, he founded Diyaryong Tagalog, the country’s first bilingual newspaper, and then became editor of the revolutionary organ, La Solidaridad. The patriot, writer and editor is honored with this monument
Gen. Gregorio del Pilar Marker (Bulacan, Bulacan)
The site marks the birthplace of Gen. Gregorio del Pilar. The hero of Tirad Pass, born on November 14, 1875, and died December 2, 1899. He is one of the youngest and trusted staff of President Emilio Aguinaldo.
Instituto de Mujeres (Malolos City, Bulacan)
The building is the same august hall where twenty determined Malolenas (the so-called Women of Malolos) set up a night school to learn (or improve their) Spanish – a language that was then the gateway to knowledge of the country and of the world.
Kakarong de Sili Battle Site (Pandi, Bulacan)
This shrine marks the battle where about 3,000 Katipuneros led by Maestrong Sebio (Gen. Eusebio Roque) died in the hands of Spanish soldiers in 1897. Maestrong Sebio was able to escape but was captured after a few days. He was summarily tried and executed on Jan. 16, 1897. It features a life-sized statue of Inang Filipina, a symbol of patriotism and nationhood. It is also the site of the Republic of Real de Kakarong de Sili of 1896.
Kamestizuhan Street (Malolos City, Bulacan)
A row of ancestral houses that are steep in history: Estrella and Pariancillo Sts. on where stands the Ejercito House which was the Department of War of the First Philippine Republic.
Lipana House (San Miguel, Bulacan)
Originally owned by Damaso Sempio and family where Gen. Gregorio Del Pilar once slept.
Mercado House (Bustos, Bulacan)
This house in Bustos, Bulacan is one of the several houses used as a fort by the Katipuneros. It boasts of unique architectural designs of stone carvings on its facade and walls and distinct turn-of-the-century Mexican villa air. Truly a masterpiece of Bulacan artisans
Meyto Shrine (Calumpit, Bulacan)
This is the cradle of Christianity in the province, where the first Catholic Mass was held by the Augustinian friars, armed with cross in 1572.
Plaridel Airport (Plaridel, Bulacan)
Covering a span of 11 hectares of land is the only existing airport in Bulacan. Constructed by the United States Bureau of Aeronautics in 1935, the runway is a historic landmark as it once became a battleground between the Americans and the Japanese forces during World War II. Together with three Filipino officers, the Americans were able to drive out the enemies from the town.
Siar Tree (Malolos City, Bulacan)
Popularly known as Kalayaan Tree or Peltrophorum Pterocarpum, located in the churchyard of Barasoain Church in Malolos City, Bulacan, this tree has been a living witness to many historic events that transpired in the area. It was in Barasoain Church where the three important events of our country took place: The convening of the First Philippine Congress on Sept. 15, 1898; the promulgation of the Philippine Constitution, popularly known as the Malolos Constitution on Jan. 21,1899; and the inauguration of the First Republic on Jan. 23, 1899, establishing the Philippines as the first democratic country in Asia. It was under the Siar tree where Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo found temporary refuge. Revolutionary field officers waited under its shade to see the general and report on the battles won and lost by the revolutionaries. It was planted by President Aguinaldo during a lull in the Malolos Convention.
Tecson Ancestral House (San Miguel, Bulacan)
Three sons of the original owners were all officers of the revolutionary army of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. For some time, this house was used as the headquarters of Aguinaldo. The house is now owned by Mr. and Mrs. Cenen Mendiola. Simon Tecson is the original owner.
Torch of Freedom Marker (Dona Remedios Trinidad, Bulacan)
Marker for one of the base camps of the guerillas during World War II.
Viola House (San Miguel, Bulacan)
The original owner is Dr. Maximo Viola, a companion of Dr. Jose Rizal in Europe while Rizal was writing his famous two novels: El Filibusterismo and Noli Me Tangere. He was known to have financed the printing of the Noli Me Tangere. A doctor and a municipal councilor.
Aguinaldo Cave (San Miguel, Bulacan)
Three prominent caves exist along the banks of the Balaong River that circumscribe the historic barangay of Biak-na-Bato, namely Bahay Paniki Cave, Aguinaldo Cave and Bukal Cave. The most notable of these is the Aguinaldo Cave where the late hero, Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo, once took refuge while leading the resistance movement against the Spanish and American colonizers.
Ambush Cave (Biak-na-bato National Park, San Miguel, Bulacan)
Located at San Miguel Bulacan, Biak-na-bato National Park, this cave is two-hour-and-a-half ride by land from Manila. Its flora such as G. Melina, teak, buho, tibig and vines are found outside the cave and a few stalactites and stalagmites, and stone formations are found inside the cave, with columns and pool. It is also open even to inexperienced cavers.
Aroma Beach (Hagonoy, Bulacan)
A sandy beach with aromatic plants, it is frequented by local picnickers during summer months.
Bahay Paniki Cave / House of Bats (San Miguel, Bulacan)
The cave located some 300 meters south of the Aguinaldo Cave is a bit risky to penetrate, considering the tons of debris filed by torrential flood-water (more conducive to cold-blooded snakes and poisonous scorpions). Beneath the gigantic portal, which stretches to about 30 meters up forming a large dome, are big boulders the size of a two-storey building and the way up the narrow and brittle natural bridges that lead to the inside is truly very dangerous. The cave is home to millions of bats. Tourists are treated to a rare and astounding display of natural beauty as the mammals fly overhead and out of the cave – aligned in two fronts and to converge some 200 meters into the sky on a single formation, only to disappear in the darkening horizon. In exactly 3 minutes at 6:15 p.m., the daily phenomenon ends.
Bakas (Norzagaray, Bulacan )
Located on this site are giant limestones at the core of a river, formed like giant footprints. Townspeople claim these were actually the footprints of legendary giant Bernardo Carpio.
Bayokbok Cave (Sitio Madlum, Brgy. Sibul, San Miguel, Bulacan)
Located at sitio Madlum, Brgy. Sibul in San Miguel, Bulacan, or some 7.5 kms. from San Miguel town proper, this cave may be reached by any motor vehicle and hiking. Madlum River is adjacent to the cave with shrimps and biya. Species of fauna can be found on the river, while insectivorous bats and a few stalactite and stalagmite formations are found inside. This cave is recommended for inexperienced cavers because of its high tourism value.
Biak-na-Bato Nature Park (San Miguel, Bulacan)
Biak-na-Bato is a nature park located 12 kilometers from the municipality of San Miguel de Mayumo that provides a unique eco-adventure steeped in history. It is a mountain gorge sliced by the Balaong River that flows from Calumpit in Bulacan and empties into Candaba Swamp in Pampanga. The river trail winds through Aguinaldo’s former natural fortress and leads to caves of natural and historical significance, observation outposts and ruins of stone fortifications.
Bukal Cave (San Miguel, Bulacan)
The Bukal Cave (the name is vernacular for “spring”) is situated on the approach of the Aguinaldo Cave. From the mouth of the cave flows crystal-clear icy waters emanating probably from a major groundwater recharge reservior. Marvelous stone formations like stalactites and flowstones deck the small dome of the cave. Faunal dwellers like mudfish, tilapia, biya, eel, freshwater shrimps, minimal bats and bivalves teem the undergound river. Bird species like kingfisher, layong-layong, tree sparrow and green doves are noted.
Cuarto-Cuarto Cave (San Miguel, Bulacan)
Biak-na-Bato – A cave with many rooms or cuartos, it is accessed by crawling through a low entrance with a downward slope about seven meters long. Swifts and swallows nest in the nooks and crevices of this cave. These birds’ nests are havested and used as the main ingridient on the popular Chinese bird’s nest soup.
Dona Remedios Trinidad Natural Wonders (Dona Remedios Trinidad, Bulacan)
Because of its altitude, the town of Dona Remedios Trinidad has a cooler and moister climate than the rest of the towns of Bulacan. Its natural features include rivers, waterfalls, forests, springs, limestone formations mountains and hills. Magnificent and well-preserved caves can be found in Barangay Bayabas, one of which is called Puning Cave with a spring running down a mountain. Another beautiful cave is the Baras-Bakal spring cave located at Barangay Pulong Sampaloc and Madlum Cave in Biak-na-Bato National Park. It has several breathtaking waterfalls like the Tumutulo Falls in Brgy. Bayabas which drops from a height of fifteen meters into an attractive setting of white stone formation and marble and cascades further into an old stone formation called Simbahan ni Lapud (Brgy. Kabayunan), Mount Bato Falls (Brgy. Sapang Bulak), Verdivia Falls (Brgy. Talbak), Talon ni Eva (Brgy. Kalawakan) are ideal places for group picnics and outings. Preferred ecotourism activities include mountain climbing, bushwalking, rock climbing, camping, mountain biking, bird watching or simply enjoying the majestic view and landscape of the Sierra Madre Mountain Ranges.
Hilltop (Norzagaray, Bulacan)
Also known as the Baguio City of Bulacan, this place mesmerizes tourists with a scenic view of the Sierra Madre Range. It is host to the Angat River Hydroelectric Plant of the National Power Corporation.
Hospital Cave (Biak-na-bato National Park, San Miguel, Bulacan)
Located at San Miguel Bulacan, Brgy., Biak-na-bato National Park, this cave is a two-hour-and-a-half ride by land from Manila, with a few stalactite and stalagmite formations inside. Generally safe to inexperienced visitors and may also be utilized for economic purposes such as guano extraction and edible birds nest collection. Open to inexperienced cavers.
Liputan Islands (Meycauayan, Bulacan)
Surrounded by fishponds, these islands are accessible only through water transportation.
Madlum Cave (San Miguel, Bulacan)
Madlum Cave is a prominent feature in the Angat Limestone Formation which occupy most of the whole reservation of Biak-na-Bato National Park and is considered a shrine by the people of San Miguel, Bulacan. There are three giant portals to the approximately 50-meter-long cavern. An entrance to the right, which is about 30 meters from the water level of the Madlum River, is a statue of the Virgin Mary. It is the place where the town’s patron saint, St. Michael, was found. It is located in Sitio Madlum, Brgy. Sibul Spring.
Mt. Lumot (Dona Remedios Trinidad, Bulacan)
One of DRT’s municipal parks, this mountain offers a wide array of eco-tourism activities like rock climbing, camping, mountain biking, mountain climbing, bushwalking, bird watching or simply enjoying the majestic view and landscape of the Sierra Madre Mountains.
Pandi Mineral and Bath Spring Resort (Pandi, Bulacan)
This natural attraction is famous for its mineral water which is found to have medicinal and curative effects.
Pinagrealan Cave (Norzagaray, Bulacan)
This major cave in Norzagaray is a natural refuge used by Filipinos during the struggle against Spain and the Americans and during the last world war. Floral species observed on the hills encompassing the cave are limited to shrubs, vines, cogon and some types of plants that thrive on limestone with very thin soil substrate. A few unidentified birds are noted flying over the loose canopies of the thicket. and expert cave enthusiasts.
Pug-pog River (Norzagaray, Bulacan)
A river with clear water coming directly from the Sierra Madre Mountains.
Puning Cave (Sitio Tumama, Brgy. Bayabas, Dona Remedios Trinidad, Bulacan)
Located at Sitio Tumana, Brgy.,Bayabas in DRT, Bulacan, the cave’s physical features are mostly intact with some presence of dripstone and flowstone forms and stalactites. Flora like anabiong, hauili, kupang, narra,ipil bamboo and balete are seen outside, as well as birds (migratory & endemic), fish & shrimps. An estimated population of 4,000 fruit bats and insect bats are found inside the cave. It is open only during dry season and contain sensitive geological, archeological, cultural, historical and biological values or high quality ecosystem. The cave is open to experienced cavers or guided educational tour/visits.
Santol Cave (Biak-na-bato National Park, San Miguel, Bulacan)
Located within the area of Biak-na-bato National Park in San Miguel Bulacan, this cave is two hours and a half ride from Manila. Flora may be found outside the cave namely pakiling, buho, tibig, vines and santol. Insectivorous bats can be seen inside the cave with geological features such as columns of stalactites and stalagmites formation inside. This cave is highly recommended as an open cave to inexperienced cavers.
Sibul Spring (San Miguel, Bulacan )
The crystal-clear water that springs from this natural wonder is famous for its medicinal effect.
Tilandong Falls (San Miguel, Bulacan)
A natural fall which is now tapped as a source of electric power as well as for irrigation purposes.
Tumutulo Falls (Dona Remedios Trinidad, Bulacan)
Located at Barangay Bayabas, this breathtaking waterfall drops from a height of fifteen meters into an attractive setting of white stones and marble and cascades further into an old stone formation called Simbahan ni Lapud.
Verdivia Falls (Dona Remedios Trinidad, Bulacan)
Located in Barangay Talbak, this splendid waterfall is an ideal venue for group picnics and outings.
Apo Iru Gatbuca (Calumpit, Bulacan)
Known as “Pottery Country”, Apo Iru Gatbuca is the biggest producer of pots in the whole of Bulacan. So vast is the pot-making industry that most residents make their living out of pottery. Local artisans transform an ordinary mass of clay into an exquisite work of art – some of which are even made into glazed decorative ceramics.
Bagbag Bridge (Calumpit, Bulacan)
Site of the longest battle between the Americans and Filipinos led by Gen. Gregorio del Pilar which took place in April 25, 1899. The bridge still standing serves as a reminder of the valor displayed by the Filipinos who triumphed against the American forces.
Bustos Dam (Bustos, Bulacan)
The dam is one of the longest sector-gates in the world and serves as the huge reservoir of the Angat Hydroelectric plant at Barrio Hilltop. The dam was built in 1922 and serves as the source of electric power in the province and Metro Manila. It features a cool picnic haven with an inspiring scenery.
Grotto Central Cement (San Ildefonso, Bulacan)
This place is memorable because of the grotto and statue of the Virgin Mary, the beautiful landscape, and the natural scenery.
Hanging Bridge (Marilao, Bulacan)
A wooden bridge connecting Brgy. Lambakin and Brgy. Sta. Rosa. This place offers a scenic view of the surrounding area.
Ipo Dam (Norzagaray, Bulacan)
The place is a water impounding dam made famous by its name synonymous with gallantry, bravery and heroism. It is used as a reservoir for the La Mesa Dam which distributes water to Metro Manila residents. The green virgin forest and sky blue water make Ipo Dam an attractive place to visit.
Marble Making Industry (Tabang, Guiguinto, Bulacan)
As early as 1992, the Marble Association of the Philippines (MAP) conceptualized the establishment of a common service facility for processing marble tiles, and to serve as a training center for marble producers. This took the form of a polishing line for the processing of export quality marble tiles targeted to respond to the high demand in the export business.
Meycauayan Jewelry Art (Meycauayan, Bulacan)
The intricate craftsmanship and painstaking creative dedication that the town’s jewelers pour into their creations have made the town the leading producer of silver and gold jewelry in the country. As a living museum of the town’s famous jewelry art, the Philippine Jewelry Center was built to showcase the craftsmanship of notable goldsmiths and silversmiths.
National Manpower Youth Center (Guiguinto, Bulacan)
A center formed by the national government to help out-of-school youth by training them for jobs and livelihood projects.
Pulilan Butterfly Haven (Pulilan, Bulacan)
Located along San Francisco Street, this butterfly sanctuary is also a perfect place for nature lovers where they can witness the butterfly’s fascinating life cycle, enjoy lush greenery which provide an ideal habitat for the butterflies and experience nature in an oasis of beauty and tranquility with butterflies flitting from one flower to another. Entrance fee: P50 Open: Monday – sunday, 7:30 a.m. – 3:30 p.m.
Sergio Bayan (Calumpit, Bulacan)
The place produces export-quality religious products and icons. Tourists flock to the shop area to witness workers transform an ordinary mass of clay into an exquisite work of art.
Bocaue Museum (Bocaue, Bulacan)
This museum houses a collection of municipal antiques and a priceless array of artifacts that depict the town’s culture and traditions.
Bulacan Museum (Capitol Cpd., Bulacan)
The Museo ng Bulacan (Bulacan Museum) houses a collection of valuable relics and mementos, articles, documents and handicrafts of the Philippine revolution. Located in Malolos to promote the cultural heritage and tradition of the province. It is under the management of the Provincial Government of Bulacan.
NHI Ecclesiastical Museum (Malolos, Bulacan)
An ecclesiastical museum managed by the National Historical Institute where religious artifacts and religious mementos of the province are displayed. Also featured is the Barasoain Light and Sound Museum built in time for the celebration of the centennial of Philippine Independence in 1998.
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